린다 노클린

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린다 노클린(영어: Linda Nochlin, née[주 1] Weinberg; 1931년 1월 30일 ~)은 미국의 미술사학자로, 뉴욕대학교의 Institute of Fine Arts 명예교수이자[1] 작가다. 저명한 페미니즘 미술사학자로, 1971년에 저술한 “왜 위대한 여성 미술가들이 존재하지 않았는가?[주 2]”라는 글을 통해 알려졌다.[2]

1 내력과 학력

린다 바인베르그[주 3]는 뉴욕 브룩클린에서 쥴스 바인베르그와 엘카 헬러(바인베르그)의 딸로 태어났다[3]. 그는 브룩클린 에티컬 컬쳐럴 스쿨을 다녔다[4]. 1951년 배서 대학교(Vassar College)에서 철학 학사를 이수했고, 1952년 콜럼비아대학교에서 영문학 박사를 받았다. 이후 1963년에 뉴욕대학교 파인 아트 인스티튜트에서 미술사 석사를 받았다.

2 Academic career

예일대학교의 미술사학부, (로잘린드 크라우스와 함께) 뉴욕시립대 대학원 센터, Vassar대학교에서 재직한 뒤, 노클린은 인스티튜트에서 2013년에 은퇴할 때 까지 재직했다[5]. 2000년, 노클린의 커리어 동안 연구해왔던 주제들을 심화하는 에세이 모음집 "Self and History: A Tribute to Linda Nochlin"이 출간되었다.

Her critical attention has been drawn to investigating the ways in which gender affects the creation and apprehension of art, as evidenced by her 1994 essay "Issues of Gender in Cassatt and Eakins".[6] Besides feminist art history, she is best known for her work on Realism, specifically on Gustave Courbet.

Complementing her career as an academic, she serves on the Art Advisory Council of the International Foundation for Art Research.[7]

Nochlin was the co-curator of a number of landmark exhibitions exploring the history and achievements of female artists.

2.1 Feminist Art History and Women in Art

In 1971, ArtNews published Nochlin's essay "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" in which she explores the many assumptions embedded in the title's question. For example, she considers the very nature of art along with the reasons why the notion of artistic genius has been reserved for male geniuses such as Michelangelo. Nochlin argues that significant societal barriers have prevented women from pursuing art, including restrictions on educating women in art academies and "the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying, and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based ".[2] The thirty-year anniversary of Nochlin's ground-breaking inquiry informed a conference at Princeton University in 2001. The book associated with the conference, "Women artists at the Millennium", includes Nochlin's essay ""Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" Thirty Years After". In the conference and in the book, art historians addressed the innovative work of such figures as Louise Bourgeois, Eva Hesse, Francesca Woodman, Carrie Mae Weems and Mona Hatoum in the light of the legacies of thirty years of feminist art history, appeared in 2006.

In her 1994 essay "Starting from Scratch: The Beginnings of Feminist Art History," Nochlin reflected on her awakening as a feminist and its impact on her scholarship and teaching: "In 1969, three major events occurred in my life: I had a baby, I became a feminist, and I organized the first class in Women and Art at Vassar College."[8]

Nochlin deconstructs art history by identifying and questioning methodological presuppositions.[9] Across an arc of decades, she has been an advocate for "art historians who investigate the work before their eyes while focusing on its subject matter, informed by a sensitivity to its feminist spirit."[10]

2.1.1 Orientalism

The Snake Charmer

Following Edward Said's influential 1978 book, Orientalism, Nochlin was one of the first art historians to apply theories of Orientalism to the study of art history, specifically in her 1983 paper, "The Imaginary Orient."[11][12] Her key assertion is that Orientalism must be seen from the point-of-view of 'the particular power structure in which these works came into being,"[13] in this case, 19th century French colonialism. Nochlin focuses primarily on the 19th century French artists Jean-Leon Gérôme and Eugène Delacroix, who both depicted 'orientalist' themes in their work, including, respectively, The Snake Charmer and The Death of Sardanapalus. In Gérôme's "The Snake Charmer," from the late 1860s, Nochlin describes how Gérôme created a sense of verisimilitude not only in how he made the painting—by rendering the scene with such realistic precision one almost forgets a painter painted it—but in capturing the most minute details, such as meticulously painted tiles.[14] As a result, the painting appears to be documentary evidence of life in the Ottoman court while, according to Nochlin, it is in fact a Westerner's vision of a mysterious world. In Delacroix's "The Death of Sardanapalus" from 1827, Nochlin argues the artist uses Orientalism to explore overt erotic and violent themes that may not necessarily reflect France's cultural hegemony but rather the chauvinism and misogyny of early 19th century French society.[15]

Nochlin says it is often what is not seen or shown that is equally telling: No Europeans, no sense of contemporary events or contemporary society. This enhances the sense of a place trapped in time.[15]

3 Personal life

Nochlin has married twice. First, in 1953 she married Philip H. Nochlin, an assistant professor of Philosophy at Vassar, who died seven years later. She then married Richard Pommer, an architectural historian, in 1968.[4] Nochlin has two daughters: Jessica, with Philip Nochlin,[16] and Daisy, with Richard Pommer, who was depicted with Nochlin by the artist Alice Neel in 1973.[17]

4 Awards

5 Selected publications

Nochlin's published writings encompass 156 works in 280 publications in 12 languages and 20,393 library holdings.[19] 틀:Dynamic list

  • Nochlin, Linda; Reilly, Maura (2015). 《Women Artists: The Linda Nochlin Reader》. New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 9780500239292. 
  • Nochlin, Linda (2007). 《Courbet》 1. publ.판. New York, N.Y.: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500286760. 
  • Nochlin, Linda (2006). 《Bathers, bodies, beauty : the visceral eye》. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674021169. 
  • Nochlin, Linda. "'Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?' Thirty Years After." Women Artists at the Millennium,. Ed. Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3; OCLC 223446291
  • Nochlin, Linda (2001). 《The body in pieces: the fragment as a metaphor of modernity》. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500283052. 
  • Nochlin, Linda (1999). 《Representing women》. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500280983. 
  • Nochlin, Linda. "Issues of Gender in Cassatt and Eakins." Nineteenth Century Art: A Critical History,. Ed. Thomas Crow, Brian Lukacher, Linda Nochlin and Frances K. Pohl. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007. ISBN 978-0-500-28683-8; ISBN 0-500-28683-3; OCLC 137221626
  • Nochlin, Linda (1991). 《The politics of vision: essays on nineteenth-century art and society》 2. [print.].판. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0064301877. 
  • Nochlin, Linda (1988). 《Women, art, and power, and other essays.》. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0064301834. 
  • Nochlin, Linda. "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" ARTnews January 1971: 22-39, 67-71.
  • Nochlin, Linda. "Realism." New York: Penguin Books, 1971. Library of Congress 71-149557.

6 링크

7 부연 설명

  1. 결혼 전 성
  2. (영어) Why have there been no great women artist?
  3. https://ko.forvo.com/word/weinberg/

8 참조

  1. http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/fineart/people/faculty/nochlin.htm
  2. 2.0 2.1 Nochlin, Linda. "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" ARTnews January 1971: 22-39, 67-71.
  3. (영어)Chinese University of Hong Kong, Linda Nochlin
  4. 4.0 4.1 “Nochlin, Linda née Weinberg”. 《Dictionary of Art Historians》. 26 June 2015에 확인함. 
  5. (영어)Pierce, Richard (2007년 1월 29일). “CAA Names Linda Nochlin 2007 Distinguished Scholar”. 《NYU Today》. 2007년 2월 12일에 확인함. 
  6. Nochlin, Linda. (1994). "Issues of Gender in Cassatt and Eakins" in Nineteenth Century Art: A Critical History, pp. 255-273.
  7. “About IFAR”. International Foundation for Art Research. 
  8. Broude, edited by Norma; al.], Mary D. Garrard ; contributors, Judith K. Brodsky ... [et (1996). 《The power of feminist art : the American movement of the 1970s, history and impact》. New York: H.N. Abrams. 130쪽. ISBN 0810926598. 
  9. Nochlin, Linda. (1999). "Memoirs of an Ad Hoc Art Historian" in Representing Women, pp. 6-33.
  10. "Book Overview," Representing Women.
  11. Inankur,, Zeynep (2011). 《The Poetics and Politics of Place Ottoman Istanbul and British Orientalism.》. Istanbul: Pera Museum Publications. 66쪽. 
  12. Elmarsafy, Ziad (2013). 《Debating Orientalism》. UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK. 184쪽. 
  13. Nochlin, Linda (1989). 《The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society》. Harper & Row. 34쪽. 
  14. Nochlin, Linda (1989). 《The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society》. Harper and Row. 37–38쪽. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Nochlin, Linda (1989). 《The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society》. New York City: Harper and Row. 35–36쪽. 
  16. “Miss Nochlin Plans Wedding in August”. The New York Times. April 19, 1981. 26 June 2015에 확인함. 
  17. “Linda Nochlin and Daisy | Museum of Fine Arts, Boston”. 《Linda Nochlin and Daisy》. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 26 June 2015에 확인함. 
  18. “Moore College of Art & Design – Visionary Woman Awards Gala”. Moore.edu. 2014년 7월 30일에 확인함. 
  19. WorldCat Identities 틀:Webarchive: Linda Nochlin
  • D'Souza, Aruna (2000). Self and History: A Tribute to Linda Nochlin. London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
  • Nochlin, Linda (1999). "Memoirs of an Ad Hoc Art Historian" in Representing Women. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28098-0; OCLC 185808272.

(이 문서는 영어 위키백과Linda Nochlin 문서를 번역한 내용이 포함되어 있습니다.)